Tuesday, December 23, 2014

AMOLED and LCD Device display

While we generally avoid going into deep detail when it comes to our display testing, in light of statements that seemingly contradict our testing it becomes important to contextualize our display tests. Many people are often confused by contradicting statements regarding the peak brightness of an AMOLED display, as we will state that the Samsung Galaxy Note 4’s display reaches a maximum of 462 cd/m^2, while other sites often state that the Note 4’s display reaches a maximum of 750 cd/m^2. Another commonly cited discrepancy is that we rate the Nexus 6’s display to reach a peak brightness of 258 nits, while others have rated the Nexus 6’s display to be as bright as 400 nits.

One might immediately assume that one measurement is right, and the other is false. In truth, both measurements are achievable, as we’ll soon see. Before we get into any discussion of testing methodology though, we must first understand how AMOLED and LCD displays work. Fundamentally, LCD and OLED displays are almost completely different from one another, but face similar issues and limitations. LCD is the older of the two technologies, and is fundamentally quite simple, although not quite as simple as OLED. In short, we can view an LCD display as made of a backlight, and a color filtering array which has liquid crystals that control the passage of light, along with polarizers to make sure that the filtering system works correctly.

An Apple iPod Touch music player disassembled to show the array of white-edge LED's powered on with the device / ReTheCat

To break this system down further, we can look at the backlight. In the case of mobile devices, the only acceptable backlight system for thickness and power efficiency reasons is the edge-lit LED, which places a line of LEDs along an edge of the display, which is then diffused through a sheet of transparent material with strategically-placed bumps in the material to create points of light via total internal reflection. For the most part, LEDs in use today are blue LEDs with yellow phosphors in order to increase efficiency, although this means that the natural white point of such a backlight is higher than 6504k and requires filtering in order to reach a calibrated white point.

Schematic diagram IPS LC display / BBCLCD

While the backlight is relatively simple, the actual color filtering is a bit more complicated, although we will avoid extensive depth in this case. In the case of IPS, the structure is generally quite simple in nature, with two electrodes in plane with each other, which is used to generate an electric field that rotates the orientation of the liquid crystals in plane with the display to dynamically alter the polarization of the light that can pass through the liquid crystal array. With a set of fixed polarizers before and after the liquid crystal array, by using the controlling TFTs to alter the voltage applied on the electrodes one can adjust individual color output on a per-pixel basis.

Schematic of a bilayer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+) / Rafał Konieczny

AMOLED is a fundamentally different approach to the problem, which uses organic emitters deposited upon a substrate. These emitters are designed to emit red, green, or blue when voltage is applied across two electrodes. Similarly, TFTs are needed to control each pixel. As one can see, AMOLED is a simpler solution, but in practice the issues with such an implementation can be quite complex.

In order to determine what picture content to use for a measurement of maximum brightness, we must turn to a measurement known as Average Picture Level (APL). This is best explained as the percentage of the display that is lit up compared to a full white display, so a display that is completely red, green, or blue would be 33% APL.

As one might already be able to guess, with AMOLED power consumption is highly dependent upon the content displayed. With a pure white image, every pixel must be lit, while with a pure black image every pixel is off. As the display typically has a maximum power use set for a mobile device, this opens up the capability for AMOLED displays to allocate more power per pixel (i.e. higher maximum luminance) when not displaying a full-white image. This is in contrast with the edge-lit LCDs used in mobile displays, which have relatively limited local-dimming capabilities. As a result, the maximum brightness of an LCD is relatively fixed, regardless of the displayed content.

In the case of the Nexus 6, we can clearly see dimishing returns after 40% APL as there is efficiency droop on AMOLED displays that are similar in nature to LED backlights. While now it’s easy to understand why it is that AMOLED can vary in maximum brightness, the question is which brightness is “correct”. While an AMOLED display can technically have a maximum brightness of 750 nits, it’s unlikely that people will look at images effectively equivalent to 1% of the display lit up with white.

In practice, it turns out that with Lollipop and almost all web pages, the average picture level is quite high. It’s increasingly rare to see cases where displayed content is below 50% APL. According to Motorola, 80% APL represents an average APL for light UIs and in light of this, it seems appropriate to test at similarly real-world APLs. Taking a look at some commonly used applications in Lollipop, we see that the APL is regularly at or above even Motorola's 80% figure. I opened some of the applications on my Nexus 6's homescreen to take screenshots of whatever they had open when they came up, and I've tabulated the results below.

As you can see, many of the screens in Android's interface as well as web pages and third party apps have a high APL. There are exceptions, like the Calculator application and any application with a dark theme, but the overall trend is clear. Google's new interface style also means that applications are more likely to adopt interfaces with large amounts of white than in the past. 

As a result of this, we test at 100% APL in order to get an idea of perceived brightness. While there may be some need for lower APL testing, it’s important to also consider cases such as OLED aging which will lower peak brightness over time. It's also important to consider that the delta between 80% APL and 100% APL in this case is around 44 nits. This makes for about an 18% delta in brightness, which ends up being around the noticeable difference in most cases. While our testing is subject to change, in the case of brightness we currently do not see much need to dramatically alter our methodology.

Understanding AMOLED and LCD display

Nexus 5/Nexus 7: Android 5.0.2 Lollipop Update Review

Now that we’ve had enough time with Nexus 7 and Nexus 5 Android 5.0.1 Lollipop update, we wanted to share some things about it with the community. This won’t be an in-depth review, because there simply aren’t that many changes in 5.0.1. Still, there are enough that we felt we want to share them with the community and go into detail on them for you today.

2013 Nexus 7

One of Google’s Nexus 7 tablets might be creeping up on its two-year anniversary but that doesn’t mean it’s aging poorly. Android 4.4.4 KitKat ran well on the device and Android 5.0 Lollipopruns even better. It seems this tablet, with its internal hardware, is handling the new ART runtime very well. The device is performing flawlessly all across the board, from Bluetooth being stable to WiFi speeds being very swift. In a time where the latest mobile software updates can simply destroy older hardware, the 2013 Nexus 7 has been running 5.0.1 Lollipop incredibly well.

Nexus 5

Google’s Nexus 5 also came out in 2013, but inside this device there are much more powerful pieces of hardware. At least in comparison to the 2013 Nexus 7 tablet. We’re seeing the same types of improvements on the Nexus 5 Android 5.0.1 Lollipop update as we see on the 2013 Nexus 7. So the Bluetooth is much more stable and WiFi speeds are excellent as well (assuming you can connect to your WiFi network). Battery life hasn’t increased as much as some were hoping to see with Project Volta, but it still performs admirably. I can’t help but wonder if the Nexus 5 came with a 3,000mAh capacity battery then perhaps it would have been the most popular smartphone in 2013.

Android 5.0.1 Bugs

It’s no surprise that Android 5.0 Lollipop has its share of bugs. Some of us aren’t experiencing any of them, or the issues we have noticed aren’t critical at all. However, some of these bugs are so big that people have been forced to downgrade back to Android 4.4.4 KitKat just to connect to a WiFi network. Even with 5.0.2 being released, this WiFi bug doesn’t seem to be resolved and that is simply unacceptable. Do we have any readers that have been unable to connect to a Cisco (or any brand) router that uses a WPA2 password? Let us know in the comments.

Some of us are actually having quite a number of issues with the Android 5.0.1 (and 5.0) Lollipop updates. We’ve discussed them at length on more than one occasion and while 5.0.1 does fix some glaring bugs that were present in Android 5.0 Lollipop update, it certainly doesn’t fix them all. Some of these issues are just random bugs that end up appearing with every single update that Android gets. Some of them, however, are much more serious and are tied to the core 5.0 branch of Android.

Android 5.0.2 Lollipop and Beyond

Google has recently released Android 5.0.2 Lollipop update and the main focus seems to be on the 2012 Nexus 7 tablet. Some of the changes don’t seem to be specifically tied to this tablet though, and this is why we feel that the update might make its way onto the other Nexus devices very soon. This is still unclear though, and we are waiting to see what Google’s next move is. There are still some glaring bugs that need to be ironed out, and I wouldn’t be surprised if we see an Android 5.0.3 Lollipop update soon.

Do we have any readers that have updated their devices to Android 5.0.1 Lollipop? Use the comments section below to tell us what your thoughts are about the update and if you think Google has some more bugs that need to be fixed. Do you think we will see a 5.0.3 Lollipop release in the not so distant future?

Nexus 5/Nexus 7: Android 5.0.2 Lollipop Update Review

8 Reasons to Install CyanogenMod on Your Android Device

CyanogenMod is the most popular custom ROM for Android devices. While it’s an unofficial build of Android, it probably provides an experience closer to Google’s original vision than the software on your current Android phone or tablet does!
We used CyanogenMod 11 for this article. If it supports your device, it’s easier than ever to install thanks to the CyanogenMod installer app.

Up-to-Date, Stock Android

This is the biggest reason to install CyanogenMod. If it supports your device, it will provide you with a pure, up-to-date Android experience. It’s a way to revitalize old Android devices that manufacturers are no longer updating.CyanogenMod provides you with an up-to-date version of Android. It’s also a pure, stock Android experience. Yes, CyanogenMod adds lots of their own tweaks and a handful of apps. However, they respect Google’s interface. The tweaks CyanogenMod adds don’t feel out of place — many of them are just added to the Settings screen as new options. Because it dispenses with the additional bloat a lot of manufacturers and carriers add, it’s also very fast.
CyanogenMod also has integrated OTA (“over the-air”) updates, so you can get new versions with a few quick taps — no ROM-flashing required. There’s a good chance CyanogenMod may update your device more frequently than its manufacturer does!

Privacy Guard

Privacy Guard lets you control which permissions installed apps can use, and which permissions new apps will get by default. This gives you an iOS-style permission experienceon Android, so you can decide whether that app should be allowed to access your location, contacts, and other private data while still using the app. This is based on an Android feature called App Ops that Google removed access to.

Privacy Guard also displays a notification when you’re using an app with blocked permissions. If an app isn’t working properly, this notification will remind you that you may want to re-enable some permissions. You’ll find this under Settings > Privacy > Privacy Guard.


The Superuser screen integrates root permissions into Android’s Settings screen. This interface functions as a traditional way to allow and disallow superuser requests from apps, but it also allows you to enable root or disable it for your entire device. You don’t have to connect your phone or tablet to your computer and run any commands, and you won’t lose root when upgrading. CyanogenMod gives you root access if you want it and allows you to disable root access if you don’t need it.



The Themes panel allows you to install and choose theme packs, styles, icons, fonts, sound packs, and even boot animations to customize your device. Most of these options are unavailable on typical Android devices. Do you dislike the Holo theme Android uses throughout its interface, or are you just looking for something new? You can change your Android’s system-wide colors and look by installing a CyanogenMod theme pack.
The Cyanogen Theme Showcase allows you to easily browse and download themes.

Interface Tweaks

The Interface settings screen is packed with options. You can tweak the status bar, quick settings panel, notification drawer, and navigation bar. For example, you could reorder the buttons on the navigation bar at the bottom of your screen, or rearrange the order of the tiles in the quick settings panel.
The Status bar pane has a Brightness control toggle, which allows you to adjust your device’s screen brightness just by sliding your finger back and forth on the notification panel at the top of your screen. It’s a great way to increase screen brightness if you can’t see your screen in direct sunlight, for example.


The DSP Manager app provides system-wide equalizer controls you can use to adjust the sound coming from your device, enabling bass boost, activating an equalizer, and selecting presets that match the music you listen to.

Button Options

Use the Buttons screen to control what your device’s buttons do. For example, you could long-press the volume buttons to switch music tracks. This is a great solution for skipping between songs without pulling your phone out of your pocket if you don’t have a headphone cable with an integrated remote.
CyanogenMod even includes the ability to enable keyboard cursor control — your volume keys will move the text cursor when your software keyboard is open. This could make typing more efficient, allowing you to adjust the cursor without having to move your finger a pixel to the left or right on the touchscreen.


CyanogenMod includes profiles, which you can find under Settings > Profiles or by long-pressing the power button and tapping the Profile option. Profiles are groups of settings. For example, you might always set your phone to vibrate mode and disable mobile data at work, so you could group those settings into the Work profile and switch to the Work profile whenever you want to change the settings rather than changing each individual setting. You can also activate profiles using Tasker.


CyanogenMod also includes a handful of its own apps, like the Trebuchet home screen launcher, the clock home screen widget, a File Manager with root file access, the Apollo music player, and a terminal emulator. Many of these apps can also be installed on other Android devices, and they can all be replaced with other apps you may like better.

Few Reasons To Use CynogenMod On Your Android Device

CyanogenMod Installer

Welcome to the CyanogenMod Installer! This easy-to-use app lets you load
CyanogenMod onto your device.

Advanced Users - Looking for more specific resources? Check out the
download page and search for your device.

Allow installation of the CyanogenMod Installer App

Open the Settings application and navigate to Security.

(on some devices, you may need to navigate to Applications)

Locate the Unknown sources option.

If Unknown sources is already checked, you can skip this step.

If unchecked, tap the checkbox and then tap OK on the
confirmation popup.

Download the CyanogenMod Installer App

From your Android phone or tablet, visit


using your web browser or scan the QR code.


Install the CyanogenMod Installer App

When the download is complete, open your notifications and tap

Tap Install to start the installation.

Once it's finished, tap Open to run the app.

Follow the instructions displayed on your Android phone or tablet to
continue the installation process.


Download the CyanogenMod Windows Installer

Download the CyanogenMod Installer for Windows Vista/7/8.

Run the CyanogenMod Installer for Windows and follow the on-screen


Enjoy CM!

How To Install CynogenMod

3D TV Channels Worldwide


As of 2008, 3D programming is broadcast on Japanese satellite BS11 approximately four times per day.

Cablevision launched a 3D version of its MSG channel on 24 March 2010, available only to Cablevision subscribers on channel 1300. The channel is dedicated primarily to sports broadcasts, including MSG's 3D broadcast of a New York Rangers-New York Islanders game, limited coverage of the 2010 Masters Tournament, and (in cooperation with YES Network) a game between the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners.
DirecTV N3D.jpg

The first Australian program broadcast in high-definition 3D was Fox Sports coverage of the soccer game Australia-New Zealand on 24 May 2010.

Also in Australia, the Nine Network and Special Broadcasting Service will be bringing the State of Origin (matches on 26 May, 16 June and 7 July 2010) (Nine) and FIFA World Cup(SBS) in 3D on Channel 40 respectively.

In early 2010, Discovery Communications, Imax, and Sony announced plans to launch a 3D TV channel in the US with a planned launch in early 2011. At the same time, a Russian company Platform HD and its partners – General Satellite and Samsung Electronics – announced about their 3D television project, which would be the first similar project in Russia.

In Brazil Rede TV! became the first Terrestrial television to transmit 3D signal freely for all 3D enabled audience on 21 May.

Starting on 11 June 2010, ESPN launched a new channel, ESPN 3D, dedicated to 3D sports with up to 85 live events a year in 3D.

On 1 January 2010, the world's first 3D channel, SKY 3D, started broadcasting nationwide in South Korea by Korea Digital Satellite Broadcasting. The channel's slogan is "World No.1 3D Channel". This 24/7 channel uses the Side by Side technology at a resolution of 1920x1080i. 3D contents include education, animation, sport, documentary and performances.

A full 24-hour broadcast channel was announced at the 2010 Consumer Electronics show as a joint venture from IMAX, Sony, and the Discovery channel.The intent is to launch the channel in the United States by year end 2010.

DirecTV and Panasonic plan to launch 2 broadcast channels and 1 Video on demand channel with 3D content in June 2010. DirecTV previewed a live demo of their 3D feed at the Consumer Electronics Show held 7–10 January 2010.

In Europe, British Sky Broadcasting (Sky) launched a limited 3D TV broadcast service on 3 April 2010. Transmitting from the Astra 2A satellite at 28.2° east, Sky 3D broadcast a selection of live English Premier League football matches to over 1000 British pubs and clubs equipped with a Sky+HD Digibox and 3D Ready TVs, and preview programmes provided for free to top-tier Sky HD subscribers with 3D TV equipment. This was later expanded to include a selection of films, sports, and entertainment programming launched to Sky subscribers on 1 October 2010.

On 28 September 2010, Virgin Media launched a 3D TV on Demand service.

Several other European pay-TV networks are also planning 3D TV channels and some have started test transmissions on other Astra satellites, including French pay-TV operatorCanal+ which has announced its first 3D channel is to be launched in December 2010. Also the Spanish Canal+ has started the first broadcastings on 18 May 2010 and included 2010 FIFA World Cup matches in the new Canal+ 3D channel.[48] Satellite operator SES started a free-to-air 3D demonstration channel on the Astra satellite at 23.5° east on 4 May 2010 for the opening of the 2010 ANGA Cable international trade fair[49] using 3D programming supplied by 3D Ready TV manufacturer Samsung under an agreement between Astra and Samsung to co-promote 3D TV.

As of November 2010, there were eight 3D channels broadcasting to Europe from three Astra satellite positions, including demonstrations provided by Astra, pay-TV from BSkyB, Canal+ and others, and the Dutch Brava3D cultural channel, which provides a mix of classical music, opera and ballet free-to-air across Europe from Astra 23.5°E.

In April 2011, HIGH TV (a 3D family entertainment channel) launched. Headquartered in NY with offices in Hong Kong and London, the channel broadcasts through eight satellites round the world, covering Europe, Asia, the Nordic region, Russia, South America, Africa, Middle East and North America.

3flow is a 3D channel that began broadcasting on Freebox in France on 1 April 2011. Made up entirely of native stereoscopic programming produced and owned by WildEarth and Sasashani (WildEarth's parent company). Initially the focus was mostly safari and has now widened to include underwater, extreme sports and other 3D content from around the world. WildEarth and Sasashani also distribute 3D series and shows through 3D Content Hub.

In 1 January 2012, China's first 3D Test Channel launched on China Central Television and 5 other networks.

On 1 February 2012: The Extreme Sports Channel - the home of Extreme Sports launched in Italy on Sky Italia marking its international début in high definition (HD).

The channel’s HD feed will be a simulcast of the standard definition feed launched in 1999, which now broadcasts to subscribers in 66 territories and in 12 languages across Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). The inaugural launch on Italy’s Sky platform sees the channel’s entrance into the HD market and from there it will begin rolling out to operators across the EMEA region.

In February 2012 Telecable de Tricom, a major Dominican cable TV provider, announced the launch of the first 3D TV programming package in Latin America. As of 3 July 2012, the only 3D channels available are 3flow and HIGH TV 3D.

In July 2013 the BBC announced that it would be indefinitely suspending 3D programming due to a lack of uptake. Only half of the estimated 1.5 million households in the UK with a 3D-enabled television watched the 2012 summer's Olympics opening ceremony in 3D.

In 2013, in the US, ESPN 3D was shut down due to lack of demand, followed by Xfinity 3D and all DirecTV 3D programming in 2014.

List of 3D Channels

3flowWorldwideWildlife and EntertainmentActive
HIGH TV 3DWorldwideEntertainmentActive
n3DUnited StatesDirecTV onlyDefunct
Cinema 3DUnited StatesDirecTV onlyDefunct
3netUnited StatesDirecTV onlyDefunct
MSG 3DUnited StatesCablevision onlyActive
ESPN 3DUnited StatesSportDefunct
Xfinity 3DUnited StatesComcast onlyDefunct
Sky 3DUnited Kingdom and IrelandSky onlyActive
Foxtel 3DAustraliaFoxtel onlyDefunct
HD1Belgium (and other European countries)Free-to-air
Sky 3DGermany and AustriaSky Deutschland only
Anixe 3DGerman-speaking countriesFree-to-airDefunct
Nova 3DGreeceEntertainment
Sport 5 3DIsraelSportDefunct
Sky 3DItalySky Italia only
Penthouse 3D HDEuropePorn
Hustler HD 3DItalyPorn
Canal+ 3DFranceCanal+ onlyDefunct
Canal+ 3D EspañaSpainCanal+ onlyActive
CANAL+ 3DPolandCYFRA+ only
NEXT Man 3DPoland
NEXT Lejdis 3DPoland
NEXT Young 3DPoland
nShow 3DPolandITI Group onlyDefunct
Viasat 3DSwedenViasat only
Teledünya 3DTurkeyTeledünya only
Digitürk 3DTurkeyDigitürk only
Smart 3DTurkeyPresentations
Sky 3DSouth KoreaSkyLife only
SBS 3DSouth KoreaFree-to-air
TV Azteca 3DMexicoFree-to-air
Sukachan 3D169JapanSky PerfecTV! onlyDefunct
Active 3DIndiaVideocon d2h only
MOBILESTAR 3D TVIndiaFirst HD 3D Channel in India
Zhongguo 3D dianshi shiyan pindaoChinaMade up by 6 different TV companies

Standard HD channels have also broadcast in 3D. BBC HD occasionally broadcasts high profile events in 3D including the Wimbledon mens & ladies singles finals and the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

3D episodes and shows

There have been several notable examples in television where 3D episodes have been produced, typically as one hour specials or special events.

The first-ever 3D broadcast in the UK was an episode of the weekly science magazine The Real World, made by Television South and screened in the UK in February 1982. The program included excerpts of test footage shot by Philips in the Netherlands. Red/green 3D glasses were given away free with copies of the TV Times listings magazine, but the 3D sections of the programme were shown in monochrome. The experiment was repeated nationally in December 1982, with red/blue glasses allowing colour 3D to be shown for the first time. The programme was repeated the following weekend followed by a rare screening of the Western Fort Ti starring George Montgomery and Joan Vohs.

In November 1993, the BBC announced a one-off week of 3D programming filmed using the pioneering Pulfrich 3D technique. 3D glasses were sold in shops around the UK, a percentage of the sales going to the Children In Need charity. The week's programming concluded with a screening of the 3D Doctor Who special Dimensions In Time as well as specially shot segments of Noel's House Party and the annual Children In Need charity appeal.

3D television episodes were a brief fad on U.S. television during the May 1997 sweeps. The sitcom 3rd Rock from the Sun showed a two-part episode, "Nightmare On Dick Street", where several of the characters' dreams are shown in 3D. The episode cued its viewers to put on their 3D glasses (which used the Pulfrich effect) by including "3D on" and "3D off" icons in the corner of the screen as a way to alert them as to when the 3D sequences would start and finish. Customers were given free glasses courtesy of a joint venture between Little Caesars pizza and Barq's Root Beer. Also in May 1997, ABC had a special line-up of shows that showcased specific scenes in 3D. The shows included Home Improvement, Spin City, The Drew Carey Show, Ellen, Family Matters, Step by Step, Sabrina, The Teenage Witch, and America's Funniest Home Videos. Similar to 3rd Rock, an icon alerted viewers when to put on the 3D glasses. Customers were given free anaglyph glasses at Wendy's for the promotion. Nickelodeon had a special lineup of shows in 1997 that also showcased specific scenes in 3D promoted as Nogglevision; ChromaDepth was the technology of choice for Nickelodeon's 3D .

Recent uses of 3D in television include the drama Medium and the comedy Chuck (Season 2, episode 12).

Channel 4 in the UK ran a short season of 3D programming in November 2009 including Derren Brown and The Queen in 3D. Unlike previous British 3D TV experiments, the programmes were transmitted in ColorCode 3D.

On 31 January 2010, BSKYB became the first broadcaster in the world to show a live sports event in 3D when Sky Sports screened a football match between Manchester Unitedand Arsenal to a public audience in several selected pubs.

On 31 January 2010, the 52nd Grammy Awards featured a Michael Jackson Tribute Sequence in 3D, using anaglyph format.

The very first stereoscopic indie live action comedy one hour show called Safety Geeks : SVI : 3D specifically for 3DTV and 3D VOD was produced and released in March 2010 through Digital Dynamic Depth / Yabazam and their Yabazam website portal. Safety Geeks SVI 3D Safety Geeks:SVI is the comic adventures of an elite force of safety experts; the P.O.S.H. (Professional Occupational Safety Hazard) team. Obsessed with making the world safer, the CSI-like team investigates accidents to find out what went wrong and who is to blame. It won the Los Angeles 3D film Festival in 2010 as best pilot or series in 3D.

In April 2010, the Masters Tournament was broadcast in live 3D on DirecTV, Comcast, and Cox.

The Roland Garros tennis tournament in Paris, from 23 May to 6 June 2010, was filmed in 3D (center court only) and broadcast live via ADSL and fiber to Orange subscribers throughout France in a dedicated Orange TV channel.

Fox Sports broadcasts the first program in 3D in Australia when the Socceroos played The New Zealand All Whites at the MCG on 24 May 2010.

The Nine Network broadcasts the first Free-to-air 3D telecast when the Queensland Maroons faced the New South Wales Blues at ANZ Stadium on 26 May 2010.

On 29 May 2010, Sky broadcasts Guinness Premiership Final in 3D in selected pubs and clubs.[59]

25 matches in the FIFA World Cup 2010 were broadcast in 3D.

The Inauguration of Philippine President Noynoy Aquino on 30 June 2010 was the first presidential inauguration to telecast in live 3D by GMA Network. However, the telecast was only available in select places.

The 2010 Coke Zero 400 was broadcast in 3D on 3 July on NASCAR.com and DirecTV along with Comcast, Time Warner, and Bright House cable systems.

Astro broadcast the 2010 FIFA World Cup Final on 11 July 2010 in 3-D on their B.yond service.

Satellite delivered Bell TV in Canada began to offer a full-time pay-TV, 3D channel to its subscribers on 27 July 2010.

The 2010 PGA Championship was broadcast in 3D for four hours on 13 August 2010, from 3–7 pm EDT. The broadcast was available on DirecTV, Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Bright House Networks, Cox Communications, and Cablevision.

In September 2010, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's first 3D broadcast was a special about the Canadian monarch, Elizabeth II, and included 3-D film footage of the Queen's 1953 coronation as well as 3D video of her 2010 tour of Canada. This marks the first time the historical 3D images have been seen anywhere on television as well as the first broadcast of a Canadian produced 3D programme in Canada.

FioS and the NFL partnered to broadcast the 2 September 2010, pre-season game between the New England Patriots and the New York Giants in 3D. The game was only broadcast in 3D in the northeast.

The 2010 AFL Grand Final, on 25 September 2010, was broadcast in 3D from the Seven Network.

Rachael Ray aired a 3D Halloween Bash on 29 October 2010.

The first Japanese television series in 3D, Tokyo Control, premiered on 19 January 2011.

In May 2011, 3net released the first docu-reality TV series entitled Bullproof filmed in native 3D made by Digital Revolution Studios.

The 2011 3D Creative Arts Awards "Your World in 3D" was the first award show filmed in native 3D and televised on 3net 3D channel broadcast on DirectTV. The production was filmed at the Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood.

On 16 July 2011 - The Parlotones (South African Rock Act) became the first band to broadcast a Live Rock Opera to Terrestrial CInema in 3D, a Live 3D feed to DIRECT TV in the USA and Facebook pay per view. It was called "Dragonflies & Astronauts".

The semi-finals, Bronze Final and Final matches of the 2011 Rugby World Cup will be broadcast in 3D.

Singapore based Tiny Island Productions is currently producing Dream Defenders, which will be available in both autostereoscopic and stereoscopic 3D formats.[64] 3net, which acquired the series, describes it as the first stereoscopic children's series and will air on 25 September 2011.

In July 2011, the BBC announced that the grand final of Strictly Come Dancing in December 2011 will air in 3-D.

The BBC broadcast the 2011 finals of the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships in 3D.

In February 2012 Telecable de Tricom, a major Dominican cable TV provider, announced the launch of the first 3D TV programming package in Latin America. As of 10 August 2012 the only 3D channels available are Wildearth,3 Flow 3D,and High TV 3D.

Avi Arad is currently developing a 3D Pac-Man TV show.

The Xbox Live broadcasts of the 2012 Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants were available in RealD 3D.

In 2013, in Brazil, NET HD pay-per-view broadcastes of the thirteenth season of Big Brother Brasil were available in 3D.

World record

The 2011 UEFA Champions League Final match between Manchester United and Barcelona was broadcast live in 3D format on a Ukrainian-produced EKTA screen inGothenburg, Sweden. The screen made it to The Guinness Book of World Records as the world's biggest screen. The live 3D broadcast was provided by the companyViasat.

Health effects

Some viewers have complained of headaches, seizures and eyestrain after watching 3D films. There have been several warnings, especially for the elderly. Motion sickness, in addition to other health concerns, is more easily induced by 3D presentations.

There are primarily two effects of 3D TV that are unnatural for the human vision: crosstalk between the eyes caused by imperfect image separation and the mismatch between convergence and accommodation caused by the difference between an object's perceived position in front of or behind the screen and the real origin of that light on the screen.

It is believed that approximately 12% of people are unable to properly see 3D images, owing to a variety of medical conditions. According to another experiment, up to 30% of people have very weak stereoscopic vision preventing depth perception based on stereo disparity. This nullifies or greatly decreases immersion effects of digital stereo to them.

Advancement in 3D Broadcasting - Televisions

Touch Screens - How it is Working

Touch-screen monitors have become more and more commonplace as their price has steadily dropped over the past decade. There are three basic systems that are used to recognize a person's touch:

Resistive Touch Screen

  • Resistive
  • Capacitive
  • Surface acoustic wave

Resistive Touch Screen

The resistive system consists of a normal glass panel that is covered with a conductive and a resistive metallic layer. These two layers are held apart by spacers, and a scratch-resistant layer is placed on top of the whole setup. An electrical current runs through the two layers while the monitor is operational. When a user touches the screen, the two layers make contact in that exact spot. The change in the electrical field is noted and the coordinates of the point of contact are calculated by the computer. Once the coordinates are known, a special driver translates the touch into something that the operating system can understand, much as a computer mouse driver translates a mouse's movements into a click or a drag.

Captive Touch Screen

Captive Touch Screen

In the capacitive system, a layer that stores electrical charge is placed on the glass panel of the monitor. When a user touches the monitor with his or her finger, some of the charge is transferred to the user, so the charge on the capacitive layer decreases. This decrease is measured in circuits located at each corner of the monitor. The computer calculates, from the relative differences in charge at each corner, exactly where the touch event took place and then relays that information to the touch-screen driver software. One advantage that the capacitive system has over the resistive system is that it transmits almost 90 percent of the light from the monitor, whereas the resistive system only transmits about 75 percent. This gives the capacitive system a much clearer picture than the resistive system.

On the monitor of a surface acoustic wave system, two transducers (one receiving and one sending) are placed along the x and y axes of the monitor's glass plate. Also placed on the glass are reflectors -- they reflect an electrical signal sent from one transducer to the other. The receiving transducer is able to tell if the wave has been disturbed by a touch event at any instant, and can locate it accordingly. The wave setup has no metallic layers on the screen, allowing for 100-percent light throughput and perfect image clarity. This makes the surface acoustic wave system best for displaying detailed graphics (both other systems have significant degradation in clarity).

Another area in which the systems differ is in which stimuli will register as a touch event. A resistive system registers a touch as long as the two layers make contact, which means that it doesn't matter if you touch it with your finger or a rubber ball. A capacitive system, on the other hand, must have a conductive input, usually your finger, in order to register a touch. The surface acoustic wave system works much like the resistive system, allowing a touch with almost any object -- except hard and small objects like a pen tip.
As far as price, the resistive system is the cheapest; its clarity is the lowest of the three, and its layers can be damaged by sharp objects. The surface acoustic wave setup is usually the most expensive.

Touch Screens - How it is Working Basics

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