Monday, July 27, 2015

Today I will tell you a story; the relation between the microbes in your stomach and obesity.
As usual, this story also has a hero, heroin and a villain. Your stomach, microbes in your gut and antibiotics leads the role respectively.  
How come the antibiotic a villain?
The Link Between Antibiotics And Obesity
To know more about it, you have to read this story to the very end.
The story starts long years ago, in the era of Antony van Leeuwenhoek, who commonly known as ‘the father of microbiology’.  He did improvements in microscope and initiated the study of microbes- microbiology.  And Antony van Leeuwenhoek becomes our first microbiologist. On September 17, 1683, describing “very little animalcules, very prettily a-moving,” which he had seen under a microscope in plaque scraped from his teeth. For more than three centuries after van Leeuwenhoek's observation, 2012 The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) established.
We will have a look at how the relation is building up between our lovers; stomach and microbes.

A Flashback: The school days

The extensive studies shows, the number of Bacteria in an average human body is ten times more than human cells. A total of about 1000 more genes present than in the human genome. Because of their small size, however, microorganisms make up only about 1 to 3 percent of our body mass (that's 2 to 6 pounds of bacteria in a 200-pound adult). These microbes are generally not harmful to us; in fact they are essential for maintaining health. They produce some vitamins which we have no genetic code, some microbes digest our food to extract nutrients which we need to survive, teach our immune systems how to recognize dangerous invaders and even produce helpful anti-inflammatory compounds that fight off other disease-causing microbes.

                      Total Microbiota in human  can weigh up to 2 kg
Gut flora or gut microbiota consist of complex community of microorganisms species that lives in digestive tracts of animals. Bacteria make up most of the flora. Somewhere around 300 to 1000 different species liven in the stomach. Research suggests that the relationship between gut flora and humans is not merely commensal (a non-harmful coexistence), but rather a mutualistic relationship.
Though people can survive without gut flora, the microorganisms perform a host of useful functions, such as fermenting unused energy substrates, training the immune system, preventing growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria,  producing vitamins for the host, such as biotin and vitamin K, and producing hormones to direct the host to store fats. In return, these microorganisms procure within the host a protected, nutrient-rich environment in which they can thrive. However, in certain conditions, some species are thought to be capable of causing disease by producing infection or increasing cancer risk for the host.

The Relation between Gut Microbiota and Obesity

In my previous post Obesity linked to exposure to Artificial light  we discussed how the over exposure to artificial light leads to obesity. Now we will study the role of microbes.
An early hint that gut microbes might play a role in obesity came from studies comparing intestinal bacteria in obese and lean individuals. In studies of twins who were both lean or both obese, researchers found that the gut community in lean people was like a rain forest brimming with many species but that the community in obese people was less diverse—more like a nutrient-overloaded pond where relatively few species dominate. Lean individuals, for example, tended to have a wider variety of Bacteroidetes, a large tribe of microbes that specialize in breaking down bulky plant starches and fibers into shorter molecules that the body can use as a source of energy.
 The composition of gut microbiota is unique to each individual, just like our fingerprints
Differences in the gut Microbiome exist between obese and lean human. Relative composition of Microbiome at the early life predicts the subsequent development of overweight and obesity.  In a comparison, of obese children and normal-weight children, bifidobacterial numbers during infancy were significantly higher in children remaining at a normal weight at age 7 years, whereas significantly greater numbers of Staphylococcus aureus in infancy were detected in children who subsequently became overweight.

The entry of Antihero: Use of Antibiotics

Now the point is clear that the diversity of the gut Microbiome is very important for a healthy body. From here we will try to identify the relation between obesity and the use of antibiotics.

The rate of Antibiotic Usage in US a state wise comparison : Source CDC

State wise Obesity rate in US . Source:Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System :CDC

 Different antimicrobial agents can influence the normal gut microbiota in different ways. The extent of the antibiotic induced alterations in the microbiota depends on several factors: i) the spectrum of the agent, ii) dosage and duration of treatment, iii) route of administration and iv) the pharmacokinetic and pharmaco dynamic properties of the agent. For example, secretion of an antibiotic by intestinal mucosa, bile or salivary glands may subsequently interfere with the normal microbiota at different sites. Other side effects of some antibiotics on the human host include disturbance of the metabolism and absorption of vitamins, alteration of susceptibility to infections and overgrowth of yeast and/or Clostridium.

Research reports on effect of different Antibiotics on Gut Microbiota :Hitectac

Several antibiotics are specifically active against anaerobic bacteria that dominate in the human intestinal microbiota. They play an important role in maintaining a healthy gut, such as producing extensive amounts of volatile fatty acids. Therefore, treatment with antibiotics that select against important groups of anaerobic bacteria can have substantial consequences for the resultant functional stability of the microbiota. One example is clindamycin, a relatively broad-spectrum antibiotic that primarily targets anaerobic bacteria.
 More than 1,000 different known bacterial species can be found in human gut microbiota, but only 150 to 170 predominate in any given subject
Clindamycin has been shown to have a large negative impact on the intestinal microbiota as seen by reduced resistance to colonization by pathogens, leading to a high risk for pseudomembranous colitis due to C. difficile overgrowth. C. difficile is commonly isolated in low numbers from healthy individuals, but may increase in number as a consequence of antibiotic-induced disturbances, in particular following suppression of the normal beneficial members of the anaerobic microbiota. Gastritis and diarrhoea are other recorded clindamycin-induced effects on the intestinal flora and disturbances of normal bowel function can lead to symptoms such as bloating and intestinal pain

Antibiotics linked to childhood obesity

Young children who are given repeated courses of antibiotics are at greater risk than those who use fewer drugs of becoming obese, US researchers say.
There is a correlation observed that , the children had four or more course of antibiotics by the age of 2 were at 10% more high risk of being obese. Even though the direct correlation of antibiotics and obesity is not completely understood, but indirectly it is true. The studies already proved that the high use of antibiotics will alter the gut biome.
US researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and Bloomberg School of Public Health reviewed the health records of more than 64,500 American children between 2001 and 2013.
The children were followed up until they reached five years of age.
Almost 70% of them had been prescribed two courses of antibiotics by the time they were 24 months old.
Do You Know : Drinking Cold Water Will Helps to reduce Obesity'
But those who had four or more courses in this time were at a 10% higher risk of being obese at the age of five than children who had been given fewer drugs.
And the type of antibiotics they were prescribed appeared to make a difference too - those given drugs targeted at a particular bug were less likely to put on weight.
But those given a broad-spectrum antibiotic - that can kill several types of bacteria indiscriminately - were more likely to have a higher body mass.
Prof Charles Bailey at the University of Pennsylvania, said: "We think after antibiotics some of the normal bacteria in our gut that are more efficient at nudging our weight in the right direction may be killed off and bacteria that nudge the metabolism in the wrong direction may be more active."

A couple of years ago I read a research paper on the topic “ Impact of the Gut Microbiota on the Development ofObesity: Current Concepts”  published in Nature. This will be a good read to have some scientific information.


Now we are at the end of our story. Yes this is just a story, just to initiate a thought on your mind. I was trying to spark the link between overuse of antibiotics- directly and through livestock’s- is dangerously changing our gut microbiota. And this microbiota is very essential for our body balance in many ways. 
Generic or broad-spectrum antibiotics are not our friend. Antibiotic usage at infant stage will increase the risk of obesity at later sate. As everyone says “What you are is what you eat”.
The story ends here with a question to you.

Do you know what are prebiotics and probiotics?How prebiotics and Probiotics help you to maintain good health?

Share your answer with us so our microbiota thrives in our gut and make us healthy.
Have a good day… don’t forget to press share buttons below J

The Link between Gut Microbes Antibiotics And Obesity

Saturday, July 18, 2015

Over the past decade, smartphones have radically changed many aspects of our everyday lives, from banking to shopping to entertainment. Medicine is next. With innovative digital technologies, cloud computing and machine learning, the medicalized smartphone is going to upend every aspect of health care. And the end result will be that you, the patient, are about to take center stage for the first time.

Continuous health monitoring requires hospitalization, which can become expensive and inconvenient choice for patient. The days are not far, the smartphones become our hospital with all sophisticated health monitoring systems. 

Imagine the days, where your smartphones continuously monitor your heart rates, blood pressure level, blood glucose level, stress level and sending reports to our doctor. The researchers are already gone far in this aspect. 

We have seen many patent applications from different smartphone manufactures on healthcare applications and technologies. The recent one is Body fat measurement techniques by Samsung. 
In this post, I will share some developments in smartphones towards health care. Initially I though it is an easy task. But when I initiated my research, I found the topic is so deep and very vast. This clearly indicates we are nearing towards an unimaginable world. 

To start with we will have some snap view on the new patent submitted by Samsung. 

Measuring body fat using smartphone

Samsung is coming up with new smartphone sensors to measure electrical impedance of your body fat level. The related applications use this data from sensors to calculate body fat level. The process is very simple. All you have to do is grab your phone in your hand like in the picture. The process is simple and very cheap and no need to wait for the results. 
Samsung Body fat measuring sensors for smart phones Image :WIPO

Another remarkable patent application is from the google

Googles wearable to zap cancer

Google's plans for a wearable that would zap harmful particles in the body are shaping up. In a recently issued patent application, Google provided details on a novel medical that would involve sending tiny magnetic particles into patients' bloodstreams. The magnetic particles, activated by a smart wristband, would attack cancer cells and pathogens linked to other diseases. 
Google's plan of new wearable to treat cancer by using magnetic particles. Image

There are plenty of applications and wearable available. This will work with any of the smartphone in a very simple way. How to choose wearable and applications is one important task to get accurate information. 

As of now the phone-based health sensors aren’t entirely accurate. But the data accuracy is not very far from reality. 

How the Biosensors will change our life?

What are biosensors?

“A device that uses a living organism or biological molecules, especially enzymes or antibodies, to detect the presence of chemicals or impulses” 

Any change in the body will results in a chemical or electrical change. Each imbalance in our body can be detected by identifying this level of change. This is the basic principle of Biosensors. (Read more about biosensors, read about biosensor products,) 

Now our main topic of discussion is about wearable biosensors and how they are going to change our life.

Wearable Biosensors Future perspective

Different types of wearable biosensors going to change the health care in the future
Imagine the day we are equipped with biosensors, which are continuously monitoring our health condition. The abrupt variation in our heart rate or our blood pressure will immediately texted to our physician. Detected the change in glucose level by nano sensors in our blood stream and sending necessary direction to kitchen. Monitoring our voice, retinal contractions, and online communication patterns and predicting our physiological situation.  All these are very simple and possible future of our life. 

New apps aim to quantify your state of mind by a composite of real-time data: tone and inflection of voice, facial expression, breathing pattern, heart rate, galvanic skin response, blood pressure, even the frequency and content of your emails and texts. 

Now there are researches at force to develop ingestible biosensors, which will run inside our blood stream. This type of sensors can monitor our blood on real time to generate reports on various conditions and communicate to related application. 

Recently I read about a biosensor named Abstar® by Gi-Logics for gastroenterology. Acoustic Gastro-Intestinal Surveillance (AGIS) biosensor monitors human digestion using acoustic signals, filling an unmet need in postoperative care and potentially saving significant time and money for patients and hospitals alike. 

NCBI recently published a report on a pilot research on real time mobile detection of drug use with wearable biosensors. Reliable detection of illicit drug use is paramount to the field of addiction, current methods involving self-report and urine drug screens have substantial limitations that hinder their utility. Wearable biosensors may fill a void by providing valuable objective data regarding the timing and contexts of drug use. A portable biosensor was placed on the inner wrist of each subject, to continuously measure electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature, and acceleration. Data were continuously recorded for at least 5 min prior to drug administration, during administration, and for at least 30 min afterward. Overall trends in biophysiometric parameters were assessed. Injection of opioids and cocaine use were associated with rises in EDA. Cocaine injection was also associated with a decrease in skin temperature. Opioid tolerance appeared to be associated with a blunted physiologic response as measured by the biosensor. Laterality may be an important factor, as magnitude of response varied between dominant and nondominant wrists in a single patient with bilateral wrist measurements. Changes in EDA and skin temperature are temporally associated with intravenous administration of opioids and cocaine; the intensity of response, however, may vary depending on history and extent of prior use. 

The HealthPatch® family of biosensors is capable of capturing clinical-grade biometric measurements in a continuous, configurable and non-obtrusive manner using a small yet powerful patch worn on the chest. The HealthPatch biosensors have a unique set of features that enable an array of possibilities for their use like Single-Lead ECG, Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, Respiratory Rate, Skin Temperature, Body Posture including Fall Detection/Severity, Steps. 

Another biosensor called Helius® by Proteus is an ingestible biosensor which can be swallowed. The sensor get activated by stomach acid. Then it starts transmit signal wirelessly back to the smartphones. It monitors several factors like body posture, temperature, respiration, sleeping patterns and heart rate. 

Nanobiosym™ (NBS) is an innovative technology, engineering and biomedicine company who has introduced Gene-RADAR®, a tablet sized device that may revolutionize disease diagnosis. Through your genetic fingerprint, via a drop of blood or saliva, Gene-RADAR is able to diagnose various diseases and conditions. A real-time diagnosis at a price point, makers claim are 10 to 100 times cheaper than conventional tests.
Gene-RADAR -A tablet size equipment which can diagnosis many medical conditions fro a drop of blood or saliva 

JoyWing recently launched a gadget named Wishbone, its contact-free thermometer. Named for its “Y” shape, the smart device plugs into smartphone jacks and contains an infrared sensor that takes temperature readings in under two seconds from skin that’s less than five centimeters away.

WishBone is a 'Y'Shapped gadget which can connect to any smartphone to read temperature data . Image @Wishbone
The accompanying iPhone or Android app collects the data and can assign it to different profiles. This makes it easy to track your temperature, which is useful for sick children or women trying to conceive. According to JoyWing, the thermometer’s sensors work between 32 and 212 degrees Fahrenheit with an accuracy to plus or minus 0.36 degrees for body temperatures.

Infrared sensors of WishBone enables it to capture 'touch free' measurement of temperature. Image @WishBone
The Hexoskin Arctic biometric smart shirt is more or less a wearable precision lab, where it will offer its users with lab-quality metrics when performance truly matters. There will be a tiny Bluetooth device that will be connected to the fabric sensors, where it is placed in the shirt’s built-in side pocket during activity and sleep. The shirt will be extremely light, warm, comfortable, and users will be well equipped with measurements that they simply are unable to receive from regular fitness trackers.

Hexoskin is equipped with different sensors which can accurately measure our health conditions : Image @Hexoskin
Mayo Clinic and Gentag, Inc. has signed a joint intellectual property (IP) agreement to develop the next generation of wearable biosensors designed to fight obesity and diabetes. Together, both parties plan to create a wireless, disposable wearable patch sensor about the size of a small bandage that communicates via a closed-loop diabetes management platform integrated with your smart phone. The integrated system will allow researchers to monitor movement and develop treatments for diabetes, obesity and related conditions. Suggested Read :  Bionic lens promises SUPERHUMAN sight three times better 

Tribogenics, Develops Smart Phone Sized Portable X-ray Machines which can be a gadget to capture X-ray of our body at home and process and share with your health care taker.

Tribogenics chief scientist, Carlos Camara, and the firm's miniature X-ray source. This device one day enable us to capture X-ray using our smartphones : Image @Tribogenics

Similar kinds of miniature medical imaging devices are under development and some are in experimental use. These miniature devices help you to generate medical report at your home and share with your health care unit at the flip of your finger tip.

Now wearable gadgets which read and process our brain waves are getting popular. Mind controlled gadgets will allow us to send command and instructions to various terminals. They can convert our thoughts in to text or we can chat with our desired person just by thinking. The same device can act to monitor our behaviors and brain action to detect and warn us about the variation.

Suggested readings >>neurogadget

Virtual Humans and Human Behaviors

Virtual humans (VHs) that can develop intimacy with people are now becoming reality. Researchers have successfully incorporated social skills (e.g., active listening, mimicry, gestures) into VH systems

Users’ experiences can be better standardized with VHs than with human beings. VHs can also provide a ‘‘safe’’ environment, which could encourage learning or honest disclosure of important information.

The healthcare field, in particular, may benefit from this latter potential advantage of VHs: honest disclosure. Failure to provide fully honest responses in medical interviews can result in serious consequences for patient health. Therefore, much research has considered how to gain more detailed and honest medical histories, especially sensitive information, from patients.

We argue that VHs could be used to reduce these psychological barriers to honest responding (i.e., fear of self-disclosure, impression management). Additionally, VH-interviewers could lead patients to behave more openly in a clinical interview context.

In an article about Virtual Human doctor they mentioned the difference in people behavior with VHs. The results showed that people disclosed information more honestly and openly when they were told they were speaking exclusively to the computer. The participants also "reported significantly lower fear of self-disclosure" under those circumstances.

Interview with virtual human interviewer. In this study, all participants interacted with a virtual human during a semi-structured interview. Interviewees were told, by random assignment, either that the virtual human interviewer was teleo-operated by a human (like a puppet) or that it was fully-automated. @ science direct computers in human behavior


I know what I mentioned here is only the tip of an ice berg. This part of the research is growing rapidly and gaining more popularity. The world is very near, where the expensive medical devices are going out of hospitals. The world is getting smaller and smarter. The micro medical devices, nano biosensors, wearable sensors are going to rule the world.

The virtual doctors and health care applications are going to revolutionize the health care industry. Interestingly, all medical manufacturing companies are doing researches on developing miniature and portable devices. In future we will have a health care kit, which with all sensors, wearable, miniature medical devices and applications. Everyone’s home will be a multispecialty hospital with all sophisticated equipment.

Doctors will get very accurate report from health care applications. The quality and accuracy of diagnosis will be high. As we discussed, many of the time the information provided are incomplete. Like, we can mention our daily workout time is one hour. But with the help of wearable, doctor will get very accurate information. The biosensor inside our stomach will monitor our diet, the calorie value of it, acid level, micro biome and what not to mention. This information will help doctors to have an accurate diagnosis.

Present day our diagnostic results reflect about the status at the time of sampling only. With biosensors we will have a continuous real time information data base. In future biosensors may be cheap but storing those data will be costlier due to its huge volume. That may be a challenge in the future but can be sorted out by new storage techniques.

If you find the post interesting please do share with your friends. Your feedback and suggestions are very important for me. Subscribe our news feed to get interesting topics at your inbox. 

Related Article.

Smartphones your future smart healthcare device will be an alternate for hospitals

Saturday, July 11, 2015

What is a ‘thought’?

A‘Thought’ an idea or opinion produced by thinking or occurring suddenly in the mind.
Where these thoughts are coming from?
Why are we thinking?
Is it possible to pause thinking while living?
The subject was always surprised me from the very begin of my life. Oh, I mean one the day when I started realizing about my thoughts.
Welcome to new series …..

The Amazing Brain

The Amazing Brain 
Talking about brain is always a complicated subject. The more and more we started learning about it, it become more and more complicated.

In this series we would rather try to explain about it in more simpler way. Like a story, so that everyone can enjoy and understand and start thinking about thoughts. 
But your participation, suggestions and feedback is very very essential for us to improve the quality of our contents. Please enjoy reading.

Do You Know ?

Our brain is faster than the fastest super computer in the world.

 It is quite faster than what we think.
Scientists believe we all carry 80 to 100 billion nerve cells or about as many as stars in the milky way.
Number of nerve cells in our brain = Number of stars in the milky way 
Illustration of Nerve cells In Brain

Human Brain Vs Super Computer

In a recent brain stimulation experiment, the super computer took more than 82,000 processors and 40 minutes to stimulate 1 sec. activities of brain.

How much data our brain process in a second?

We have about 100 billion nerve cells.
Each nerve cell is connected to a minimum of 1000 other nerve cells.
One neuron fires an average of 200 times in each second. The simple calculation is
100 Billion Neurons X 200 Fires per second X 1000 connection each =20,000,000,000,000,000 bits of info transmitted per second.

20 million billion bits of information move around your brain every second. 

That a very quick introduction to brain. We will explain each of it more scientifically in later additions. 
Now we will take you to some very interesting discussions.

Do you ever compare your child with your neighbor's  or your friend's child.
And you might have noticed a lot of difference in their abilities.

This is very interesting topic , keep reading , how the brain develops?

The Development of Brain

  • Our brain begins to mature even before birth. It continues to mature throughout most of life.
  •  The brain does not mature at the same rate in each individual. 
  • It is important for parents and teachers to understand that the maturation of brain influences learning readiness.           
  • Instructions above or below the maturity level of a child’s brain is not only inappropriate, it can also lead to behavioral problems. Inappropriate behaviors like avoidance, challenging authority, and aggression towards others can be explained by a failure to match instruction to the brain maturity level.
  • The normal development of brain varies widely within the same age and the same grade. So there is no point of comparison of brain power in children. 
  • Take an example of class room with children’s of same age and grade. The age for entrance into a particular grade is not necessarily linked to brain maturity for all children.
  • Healthy brain likes to learn, and children learns best when they exposed to variety of ideas, experiences, skills and materials. 
  • In the early years, children like to explore and learn using several sense or multiple skills at the same time. 
  • Activities that pair both motor and auditory skill can encourage the development of both pathways.
  • A child who has difficulty with writing and other fine motor skills benefits from lacing cards, mazes and tracing. 
  • These activities actually help students develop the visual-motor areas of their brains. 
  • When a child talks through a difficult visual problem, it can help him/her learn. In other cases, a child whose language skills are delayed may benefit from tasks that don't require language
Brain Activity development 
Be aware that brain systems do not all develop at the same time or at the same rate.
A child may show advanced development in one area and be delayed in another.
 For example, a child may read early but be physically clumsy. Brain development also does not occur in a straight line.
Some skills may develop earlier than other skills.

Also, precocious ability does not necessarily last. It is possible for a child to be accelerated in reading or verbal skills in kindergarten but show average ability by third or fourth grade.

Don't assume that a child has a disability just because his/her learning is delayed. Be aware that the development of cognitive and other skills is often uneven. 

Don't assume that delays a child is showing today will get better over time. If a child does not improve his/her progress, it is important to gather more information and then refer the child for further evaluation if indicated.

Don't adopt a one-size-fits-all approach. It is required to have different skills and activities for different students within a grade. Some of this variability works because of the different life experiences of children and some works because of differences in brain maturity. But, for either reason, variety is a good thing. 

Don't place children in groups based solely on age. For some children, learning to read is a struggle. Many are not ready to learn to read until they are seven years old, while others are ready at age four. (This may be particularly true for boys.) Social maturity does not correlate with other learning skills. Both social and learning characteristics need to be addressed separately to determine appropriate placement. 

Don't judge ability based on physical appearance. It's very important not to judge children based on their physical appearance. Children who are taller and/or more physically mature may not be cognitively advanced. And children with cerebral palsy often have average to above average ability despite significant problems with motor and speech production.

The Nerve cell In Details

Concluding Remarks

Baby Genies
Now we are concluding our first part of 'The Amazing Brain'. Hope it helps to trigger some thoughts in your brain. Please do share your thoughts with us.

We are concluding with 2 Myth Busters

Myth 1: You can train certain parts of the brain to improve their functioning.

Fact: This has been an attractive and sometimes lucrative idea for many entrepreneurs.
 However, it is not possible to target a specific brain region and teach just to that part of the brain.
The brain is highly connected. Neurons in the brain learn remember and forget, but they do not do so in isolation.
 Skills need to be broken down into their component parts and these parts can be taught.
However, we do not totally understand how this learning takes place nor do we know exactly "where" in the brain that learning is stored.
Evidence from victims of stroke and head injury show that injury to the brain of one individual may not result in the same loss in the brain of another person.
 Brains are like fingerprints — although there are commonalities, there are differences that make each brain unique.

Myth 2: You are born with certain abilities and these do not change over time.

Fact: At one time, people believed that the brain developed into its full form by the age of three, and that what developed afterwards was just a matter of refinement.
In fact, we now know that the brain is plastic — it changes with experience and development. 

Evidence shows that rather than ending development at the age of 5, or even 12, brain development continues into one's twenties.
 For some adolescents, the maturation of the frontal lobes may not end until age 25. For others, frontal-lobe maturity may be reached by the age of 18 or 19.
 For this reason, some adolescents may require additional time before they are ready for college, while others are ready at an earlier age.

Hope you all enjoyed reading this. 
Please do share your suggestions and thoughts and help us to improve. 
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The Amazing Brain :Know Your Brain

Thursday, July 9, 2015

Ebola is back in Liberia more than a month after the country thought it was rid of the virus.
A 17-year-old man died on June 29 of a fever illness that was being treated as malaria. As part of Liberia’s Ebola surveillance, swabs from the young man were collected by a safe burial team. Tests revealed that the young man died of Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO)announced July 3.
Two of the nearly 200 people who came in contact with the young man have also developed Ebola symptoms and have been found to carry the virus. Other contacts are being monitored.
Liberia was declared Ebola-free on May 9 after 42 days without a new case. It is not known how the young man became infected.
To date 27,573 people have contracted Ebolaand 11,246 have died. Most of the cases have occurred in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea.
report issued July 7 by a panel that analyzed the global response to the Ebola outbreak says the WHO and its member states were ill-equipped to handle the epidemic and must make changes to safeguard public health.

New cases of Ebola emerge in Liberia

Google Flagship Won’t Take After LG G4; LG Working On Unique Design

Among the murmurs of information about Google’s upcoming Nexus smartphone(s) includes rumors that manufacturers such as LG and Huawei will build hardware for the tech giant in 2015. Prior reports have suggested that Huawei has confirmed its collaboration with Google. Now, a second report suggests LG has done the same.

A source recently told tech blog AndroidPit that LG will be manufacturing the device many are currently calling the Nexus 5 2015. Rumors have circulated about a device codenamed “Bullethead,” which is likely the device in question. With LG possibly on board to build the Nexus 5 2015, many have predicted its design would be similar to that of LG’s current flagship, the LG G4. However, the source says the device is “still in development” and will likely feature a unique design. Prior reports have suggested the Nexus 5 2015 would feature a carbon fiber exterior. This design would be much different from the LG G4, which comes in leather, ceramic and metallic design options.

Several Google devices have been designed based on the current flagship of their manufacturer. The Nexus 6 was built by Motorola and features a design based on that of the Motorola Moto X. The Nexus 5 was built by LG and features a design based on that of the LG G2. But with the smartphone market being extremely saturated with several devices from the same makers that look very similar, a change of pace for the Nexus 5 2015 is sure to be a good thing.

Possible hardware for the Nexus 5 2015 includes either a Full HD or Quad HD resolution display of at least 5-inches, a Qualcomm Snapdragon 810 or Snapdragon 808 chip, 3GB of RAM and 32GB, 64GB or 128 GB internal storage options, as well as a fingerprint scanner and a USB Type C port . The official name of “Bullethead” is also not confirmed, so many continue to refer to the device as Nexus 5 2015.

Prior reports have suggested that the Nexus 5 2015 may launch during the third quarter of 2015, which would put its release date somewhere in August at the latest. However, Google is known for launching new hardware later in the year, between October and November.

Google announced its upcoming operating system, which is currently referred to as Android M in late May. The software is set to run on the upcoming Nexus device(s) and is currently available as a developer preview.

Huawei’s possible Nexus device is codenamed “Angler” and is expected to be a phablet smaller than the Nexus 6.

Nexus 5 2015 Release Date Details

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